From EXTOXNET - Extension Toxicology Network
Pesticide Information Profiles

A Pesticide Information Project of Cooperative Extension Offices of Cornell University, Oregon State University, the University of Idaho, and the University of California at Davis and the Institute for Environmental Toxicology, Michigan State University. Major support and funding was provided by the USDA/Extension Service/National Agricultural Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. EXTOXNET primary files maintained and archived at Oregon State University

Trade and Other Names
Trade names include Apistan, Klartan, Mavrik, Mavrik Aqua Flow, Spur, Taufluvalinate, and Yardex.

Regulatory Status
Fluvalinate is a moderately toxic compound in EPA toxicity class II. Some formulations may have the capacity to cause corrosion of the eyes. Pesticides containing fluvalinate must bear the Signal Word DANGER on the product label. Fluvalinate is classified as a Restricted Use Pesticide (RUP) because of its high toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Restricted Use Pesticides may be purchased and used only by certified applicators.

Chemical Class

Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid which is used as a broad spectrum insecticide against moths, beetles and other insect pests on cotton, cereal, grape, potato, fruit tree, vegetable and plantation crops, fleas, and turf and ornamental insects. It is available in emulsifiable concentrates, suspensions and flowable formulations.

It is available in emulsifiable concentrates, suspensions, and flowable formulations.

Toxicological Effects

  • Acute toxicity: Fluvalinate is moderately toxic via the oral route, with a reported LD50 in rats of 261 to 281 mg/kg [2,38]. The product Mavrik 2E is less toxic via the oral route with a reported oral LD50 in rats of 1050 to 1110 mg/kg [38]. It is slightly to practically non-toxic via the dermal route, with a reported dermal LD50 for technical fluvalinate in rats and rabbits of greater than 20,000 mg/kg and greater than 2000 mg/kg respectively [12]. The dermal LD50 for Mavrik 2E in rabbits is greater than 2100 mg/kg [38]. Fluvalinate is moderately irritating to the eye and it is a mild skin irritant [37]. Fluvalinate does not cause allergic skin reactions [38]. Some formulated products, including Mavrik 2E, can cause skin irritation and are corrosive to the eyes [39]. Some formulations of fluvalinate are practically nontoxic via inhalation; the reported 4-hour airborne LC50 for the formulated emulsifiable concentrate was greater than 5.1 mg/L in rats [12]. Workers exposed to fluvalinate have reported coughing, sneezing, throat irritation, itching or burning sensations on the arms or face with or without a rash, headache, and nausea [38].
  • Chronic toxicity: A 90-day study with rats fed 3 mg/kg/day and a six-month study with dogs fed 5 mg/kg/day both showed no adverse effects [38]. In other studies, effects observed were increased liver and kidney weights and adverse changes in liver tissues in test animals [38]. No neurological effects were observed in hens given doses of 20,000 mg/kg/day of fluvalinate for 21 days [38].
  • Reproductive effects: A reproductive study with rats showed no effects on offspring at 1 mg/kg. Toxic effects in fetuses occurred at 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/day, the highest doses tested [38]. Based on these data, it is unlikely that reproductive effects would be seen in humans under normal circumstances.
  • Teratogenic effects: No birth defects were detected in the offspring of rats fed 50 mg/kg/day nor in the offspring of rabbits fed 125 mg/kg/day [38]. Based on these data, it is unlikely that teratogenic effects would be seen in humans.
  • Mutagenic effects: Fluvalinate is not reported to have mutagenic activity [38].
  • Carcinogenic effects: No tumors were observed in mice given doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day, nor in rats given doses as high as 2.5 mg/kg/day for over 2 years [38].
  • Organ toxicity: Pyrethroids may cause adverse effects on the central nervous system, liver, and kidneys.
  • Fate in humans and animals: The elimination half-lives for mammals ranges from 6 to 12 hours [12]. Following oral administration, approximately 40 to 50% is absorbed into the system, and more than 95% of the administered fluvalinate is excreted via urine and feces within 4 days [12]. Thus, it has a low potential for bioaccumulation.

Ecological Effects

  • Effects on birds: Fluvalinate is slightly toxic to birds. The acute oral LD50 for fluvalinate in bobwhite quail is greater than 2510 mg/kg [12]. The dietary LC50 for fluvalinate in mallard ducks and bobwhite quail is greater than 5620 ppm [12,38].
  • Effects on aquatic organisms: Fluvalinate is very highly toxic to fish. The 96-hour LC50 for fluvalinate in bluegill sunfish is 0.9 ug/L, in rainbow trout is 2.9 ug/L and in carp is 2.9 ug/L [12]. Its 48-hour LC50 in Daphnia magna, a small freshwater crustacean, is 74 ug/L, and in mysid shrimp is 2.9 ug/L [38]. The bioconcentration factor for fluvalinae in whole fish is 360 times the ambient water concentration, indicating a low to moderate potential to accumulate in aquatic organisms [38].
  • Effects on other organisms: Fluvalinate was not toxic to honeybees exposed to residues left on cotton leaves after application of unltralow volume (ULV) and emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations [24].

Environmental Fate

  • Breakdown in soil and groundwater: Fluvalinate is of low persistence, with reported soil half-lives of 6 to 8 days [12,25]. In sandy loam, sandy clay and clay soils, fluvalinate degrades under aerobic conditions with half-lives of 4 to 8 days. Under anaerobic conditions in sandy loam, its half-life may be 15 days [38]. Fluvalinate is nearly insoluble in water and it has a strong tendency to bind to soil particles [25]. It is therefore unikely to contaminate groundwater; however, metabolites of fluvalinate may leach [12,38]. Applications of less than 0.1 pound active ingredient per acre will decrease the potential for groundwater contamination [38]. Photodegradation of fluvalinate does not occur on soil [38]
  • Breakdown in water: In water, fluvalinate is subject to photodegradation with a half-life of up to 1 day. Photodegradation yields anilino acid and 3-phenoxy benzoic acid [38]. Fluvalinate is stable to hydrolysis under normal environmental temperatures and pH [38]. In pond waters and in laboratory degradation studies, pyrethroid concentrations decrease rapidly due to sorption to sediment, suspended particles and plants. Microbial and photodegradation also occur [22].
  • Breakdown in vegetation: No information was found.

Physical Properties

  • Appearance: Fluvalinate is a viscous, yellow oil [12].
  • Chemical Name: (RS)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl N-(2-chloro-a,a,a-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-D-valinate [12]
  • CAS Number: 102851-06-9
  • Molecular Weight: 502.93
  • Water Solubility: 0.002 mg/L [12], insoluble in water
  • Solubility in Other Solvents: v.s. in organic solvents and aromatic hydrocarbons; s.s in hexane [12]
  • Melting Point: Not Available
  • Vapor Pressure: <0.013 mPa @ 25 C [12]
  • Partition Coefficient: 3.8451 [12]
  • Adsorption Coefficient: 1,000,000 [25]

Exposure Guidelines

  • ADI: Not Available
  • MCL: Not Available
  • RfD: 0.01 mg/kg/day [30]
  • PEL: Not Available
  • HA: Not Available
  • TLV: Not Available

 Basic Manufacturer

Sandoz Agro, Inc.
1300 E. Touhy Ave.
Des Plaines, IL 60018

  • Phone: 708-699-1616
  • Emergency: 708-699-1616


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The information in this profile does not in any way replace or supersede the information on the pesticide product labeling or other regulatory requirements. Please refer to the pesticide product labeling.