**The Effect of Protein Substitutes of Pollen on the Function of Generation Population in Honeybee Colonies (2006)**** ZDastouri. M.R Aghdam shahriar . H. Aragi .M**

*Department of Animal Sciences Azad Shabestar University, IRAN*

**Abstract**

In recent research applicated with 25 offspring queens obtained from one mother queen. 25 young queens breed in nucleus hives and introduce to 25 colonies. Before starting bee feeding; the colonies equalized in population and honey source. Environment conditions in all colonies were same.

This experiment was applied in 5 diet treatment (1. base diet pea , 2. base diet milk powder , 3. base diet soybean meal , 4. base diet pollen , 5. control group ) and each treat in 5 replicates . All of diet distribute randomized between 25 colonies.

Propose of this research were determined correlation between nutritional effect in colonies population and honey bee source. After two month feeding with above diets, data's from this experiment was analyses with computer soft ware. Significant different was between pea and pollen treatment with other diets. (p<0.01) The best performance was in pea and pollen treatment; but between pea and pollen treatment wasn't significant different. Other treatment namely powder milk, soybean meal were the next form the generation increasing point of view respectively in comparison to the control group. In term of the amount of honey, the best treatment ware pea and pollen .Beside, with the calculation of correlation it was revealed that there is a negative significant relationship between the amount of honey production and the increase population. In this research pea powder treatment has best performance. Perhaps this performance related to decrease anti nutritional factor (anti tripsin and tanen) by researcher.

**Key words*** :* pollen, pea, protein, honey bee, anti tripsin

**Introduction**

One of the main purposes of ach apiculture is increasing the population of honeybee colonies because is increasing the colonies of honey bee will lead to an increasing on the production of honey, more profit and efficiency of production. The lack of pollen is one of the main factors, which limits the increasing of production of colonies. Lacking the pollen in the area of experiment in this research especially in June is the main reason that made me choose some of simple protein foods on the area and tries investigating the effect of those foods on increase of generation are: soybean meal Pea powder, Pollen and powdered milk. The experiment was done on the twenty-five of beehives that were already similar and there was no difference among them, which were chosen quite randomly. Then they were exposed in a place like other beehives. The Conduction of weather and environment for all the beehives was same. The generation increase of beehives was evaluated after they were fed with pasty productions.

Through the experiment other minor factors like the amount of pollen in the beehive and the amount of stored honey in the beehives before and after feeding with above mentioned product were closely evaluated. The aim was to investigate the existence of relationship of nourishing with the increase of decrease of in search factors. After about 2 months of nourishing with above mentioned products which was done in 8 times, the collected data were analyzed statistically.

On the basis of food treatment variance analyses, it was discovered that there is a significant difference in the level of probability of 1% among food treatment. The best treatment was Pea, and Pollen which had the best function from the generation increasing point of view. Other treatment namely powdered milk, and soybean mill were the form the generation increasing point of view respectively in comparison to control group. In term of the amount of honey, the best treatment were Pea and Pollen and also about the factor of the amount of exiting pollen treatment in the bee hive and Soya were the best .Beside, with the calculation of correlation coefficients it was revealed that there is a negative and production and the growth of larvae and amount of honey and significant relationship between the amount of decreasing of pollen and increasing of number of generation.

Up to now there have not been such useful results the best treatment in to generation increasing. This difference can be attributed to the processes of deceasing anti-nourishing factor of (anti tiripsin and tanen).Earlier researchers have not done anything to stop it. According to increasing results which are derived from this research, it can be both increase the population of beehives and save pollen we can increase both the population of beehives and save millions dollar in the apiculture industry in our country.

*Material and Methods*

* Preparing the place and giving number to the hives*The hives were placed in a certain place which was the same for all of them. Everything was taken into account including: environment temperature, moisture, the ground, the distance between hives geographical side and other main condition. Then they were given numbers from 1 up to 25.

** Generation counting**In order to measure the rate of generation, applied special method. This indicator was a framework made with waxy string and the indicator was divided comb into 80 equal parts .the distance between the parts was about one decimeter. Then every square which included egg, larva and pupa was counted. In order to measure other factors such as honey and pollen the numbers of squares which had honey and written down.

The result showed that how generation, how much honey and pollen every colonies has. Randomly then all 25 hives were divided into 5 groups. They had the same 5 treatment and each 5 replication. Out of these five treatments, for of them were for pollen replacements that their main basis diet was pollen, pea, milk powdered and soybean meal. The fifth treatment also had the control group. Chemical analyses showed the rate of protein, fat, hydrocarbon, minerals in four main foods were plant pollen, powdered milk, and pea powder and soybean meal.

*Chemical analysis for:*

* Estimating the Rate of Generation, the Weight of Honey and Pollen *

In order to know the generation, first one decimeter of comb was chosen with framework indicator; the number of its cells was counted and multiplied by the number of squares. Then, I had the number of its generation for every hive.

In order to calculate the weight of honey and pollen the weight of only one decimeter square of honey and pollen. In order to be exact, I used the different parts of hive and five of them were chosen for honey and five of them for pollen. Then I had the average number and this number was multiplied for every hive honey and pollen decimeter.

** How to Pollen Preparation**

In order to make pollen, I used the pollen trop. ten pollen traps were placed in front of holes of ten strong colonies other than 25 experimental colonies.

**Materials Used in the Experiment:**

- Honey
- White sugar
- Pollen (gathered by pollen traps)
- Soya (the best one without fat)
- White pea
- Powdered milk (less fat)
- Vinegar
- Oxy tetracycline: preventing the growing of germs
- Multi vitamin in order to make balance of food in terms of vitamin.

** How to Make the First Solution**

First we must have the every first solution which has sugar, water, honey, vinegar, and oxy tetracycline.

**How to Make Cake**

In order to make pollen cake, first we take 100 germs of the solution and mix it with 160 germs of new pollen. We work with the paste until it becomes quite congenial so that it does not come out of the dishes.

**How to Make Pea Cake**

Since pea has some anti-nutritional materials like tannin, and anti-trispin, it needs great care and through the processes they must be disappeared.

We take some whit pea; put it in a dish and same water is poured on it, them it is put on a store. When it reaches 50 centigrade, we stop heating it, then mix it with out hands so that the skins of pea come out and water goes inside the pea, then we put the water away, we do it for 10 times the last time, after 6 hours we put it in front of sun to dry. Then we grind the pea and they become powder and through powder by working it turns to paste.

**How to Feed and Measuring the Rate of Product**

After feeding an adaptation period of 14 days, the result showed that how much they use the food. Feeding the hives with some certain materials began and they were placed inside the glass dishes on the combs of larva and pupa. When only one of the plates become empty, the others were gathered and again were put there, this was done for 8 times for 6 day. According to the remained food, the result showed that how much food they use. It is very important because it avoids them from becoming colonies ill.

**Measuring with an Indicator and Giving the Unit for Measurement**

Before feeding it is necessary to measure the rate of generation population. So, the generation in every hive is measured on square decimeter, since there were 39 generation (cell) in every decimeter, by multiplying it by the number of decimeters of all hives we can also have it in terms of gram through weighing them separately and multiplying it by the number of decimeters having honey and pollen in the hives. It must be said that for this first we cut one comb having honey, them only one centimeter of empty comb is cut and weighed. The difference between two weights comes and is divided by two. Since the thickness of comb is different, so different parts are used randomly. This is also used in weighing the pollen. After feeding the function of these foods on generation increasing is measured. The process is as follows:

When the indicators are put in the squares the rate of generation honey, pollen all comb etc are determined in terms of decimeter these numbers are multiplied by the units and the rate of every factor according to its unit comes.

*The number of generation in every hive = the number of decimeters per every generation × 39**The whole weight of honey in every hive = the number of decimeters for honey × 22/91 gr**The whole weight of pollen in every hive= the number of decimeters for pollen × 11/825 gr*

**Discussion and Analysis**

** The Population Rate**

According to the result of variance analysis, the number of population which was a very main factor, there was a significant difference between food treatments. (P<0.01)

According to 1-4 graphs, pollen and pea powder treatments have the least generation decline with 1271, 1295were the best. Powdered milk with 1490 decline and soybean meal with 1661were the rest.

**Mean difference for any treatment in generation reduce**

** The Rate of Honey**

According to the taken, results from variance analyses, the rate of honey which was a minor factor in the experiment, we can see the significant difference. (P<0.01)

Comparing the average effect of different food treatments on the increasing of honey, if became obvious that there is a significant difference between pollen, pea, milk powder, with the other group. Soy bean meal doesn't have any statistically effect in terms of increasing honey. Pollen and pea were the best. Powdered milk is of secondary importance too.

**Mean difference for any treatment in honey production**

** The Rate of Pollen **

There is a significant difference between food treatments. Analytic variance of the decline rate of pollen is minor factor. (P<0.01)

Through comparing the average, the effect of different food treatments with the existing pollen in the hive, it became obvious that there is a significant difference. There is also a significant difference between soybean meal and the treatment of other group. So, the best treatments are pollen and soybean meal respectively. Soybean meal is the most important factor regarding the reduction of gathered pollen.

**Mean difference for any treatment in honey production**